No, Is the Subject Area "Colombia" applicable to this article? Yes Various species of snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus show a high similarity in the composition of their venoms. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper. The solution was centrifuged at 3000 g for 20 min at 4ºC. LAV has been used to treat exposure to other Lonomia species across South America. Investigation, In this study, we tested the effectiveness of LAV in reversing the hemostatic disturbances induced by injecting Lonomia casanarensis (Lca) and Lonomia orientoandensis (Lor) scolus extracts into rats and compared the effects to the case of L. obliqua (Lob) scolus extract-induced envenomation. Species: Lonomia achelous, https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lonomia_achelous&oldid=6215278, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Frozen aliquots were transported on dry ice to the Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil) in polystyrene boxes and kept at -80°C until testing. Regarding the envenomation in rats, our results showed differences among species. 4) Group envenomed i.d. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Resources, One vial of LAV, which contains ten mL of LAV, neutralizes 3.5 mg of the Lonomia obliqua extract, according to the producer and the Brazilian pharmacopeia.
Accidents with Lonomia obliqua 5 caterpillars were observed for the first time in the South of Brazil in 1989 around the municipal districts of Passo Fundo (RS) and Chapecó (SC). two hours later. one hour later. Male Wistar rats that weighed 250–300 g were supplied by the Central Animal Laboratory of the Instituto Butantan. Seven experimental groups were used to test the efficacy of LAV treatment. Data curation, No, Is the Subject Area "Blood" applicable to this article? This figure was built using ArcGis 10.5 software, licensed to Universidad de Los Andes; the layers are available for free: elevation from the Hydro 1K available at https://www.usgs.gov/ and political division by the National administrative department of statistics (Dane by its acronym in Spanish) at https://geoportal.dane.gov.co. The obtained sequences were compared to all the Lonomia sequences (~800) in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD; www.boldsystems.org). The PCR products were then sequenced using the Sanger method, and the reads were edited and then aligned using Geneious software . (2006) .
In Colombia, most cases are recorded in the Casanare Department, but there is no available information regarding the real number of accidents in Colombia or the species that were involved. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006721.t001. The Lob scoli extracts and Lonomia antivenom (LAV, batch:1304060) were provided by Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil). In conclusion, the results showed that LAV is effective at neutralizing the envenomation induced by Lca and Lor spine extracts in rats and restoring hemostasis.
In Colombia, from 2005 to 2010, after an epidemiological surveillance protocol is established, the use of LAV was started, and since then, 32 cases have been reported, including two deaths. Data curation, Por otra parte, las alas de las hembras tienen … The effect was dose dependent but, unlike in humans, there was a fairly rapid return to baseline values. Lonomia achelous es una especie de polilla de la familia Saturniidae, que se encuentra desde Colombia y Venezuela hasta la Guayana Francesa. Is the Subject Area "Caterpillars" applicable to this article? The spines of Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 caterpillars are associated with a gland that is a single large cell in the subapical region . MCF, the primary parameter for the evaluation of fibrinogen by the FIBTEM assay, was altered in the envenomed group. The identification was performed based on the descriptions of the species [26–28] and the revisions of the genus Lonomia by Lemaire . The data are expressed as the means ± SEM, and differences were considered statistically significant when the P <0.05. two hours later. The data were captured by the ROTEM software in the time interval of 40–60 min. The control was a non-envenomed rat that was treated with Lonomia antivenom. Among the thromboelastographic parameters, the MCF values showed the most marked difference between the envenomed groups and the respective envenomed groups treated with LAV, which indicated the reversal of the changes caused by the envenomation (Fig 6A, 6C and 6E). This species is also known to be responsible for accidents in Venezuela ; however, after many tries to collect L. achelous in Colombia, this species still has not been found. Thromboelastography was performed in citrated whole blood with the addition of 0.2 M calcium chloride and specific reagents for the analysis of the FIBTEM. Barcode analyses have allowed the species identification with similar morphological traits, so the diversity of Lonomia species involved in accidents has been underestimated.
The first records of envenomation by Lonomia caterpillars in South America came from Venezuela in 1967 and involved L. achelous caterpillars [8,15,16]. Project administration,
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In rats injected with Lob, the same signs and changes in coagulation were observed 1 h after the envenomation, and the MDD for the scolus extract of Lob was 50 μg/ rat. The animals were injected subcutaneously with either hemolymph or chromatographically purified fractions. The pair of primers LepF1 and LepR1 was used to amplify a 658 bp fragment of the COI gene . 1) The control group was not envenomed and was treated with sterile saline 0.9% (1.5 mL, i.v.). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006721.g001. Superregnum: Eukaryota Yes The MDD is the minimum protein concentration that induces blood incoagulability at least one hour after i.d. The results are expressed as the means±SEM, n = 6 rats/group. Funding: This work was funded by Vicerectoria de Investigaciones, Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Convocatoria 2016-2. Thromboelastography was performed on citrated whole blood with the addition of 0.2 M calcium chloride (NATEM) or specific reagents for the analysis of the extrinsic pathway (EXTEM), or intrinsic pathway (INTEM). Subclassis: Pterygota Subfamilie: Hemileucinae Phylum: Arthropoda The control group consisted of non-envenomed rats treated with LAV. A double-blind clinical and laboratory study should be carried out in regions where similar accidents occur to test the need for production of an antivenom using antigens from other species of caterpillars. Writing – review & editing.
Cladus: Obtectomera Lca caterpillars were collected in the municipality of Tauramena (4.90773°S, -72.5437°W) and Lor caterpillars in the municipality of Nunchía (5.64629°S, -72.2011°W) (Fig 1). Formal analysis, Classical thromboelastometric parameters, such as the coagulation time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and alpha angle (α-angle), were analyzed for each assay. The control group consisted of non-envenomed rats treated with LAV.